So this year I've decided to start revising a little earlier than I've done in the past. Although my first A2 exam isn't until 11th June, with needing to get BBB or at least BBC to get into my preferred University, I've tried revising a month before my actual exams start.
Anyway, here's a question from the Germany paper that I'm going to try and tackle:
To what extent was the effective government of Germany in the years 1919-33 handicapped by the nature of the Weimar Constitution?
Flaws of Weimar: born out of turmoil, Article 48, President appoints the Chancellor, Proportional Representation, extremist parties, coalitions, and no desire for compromise.
Uprisings: Putsches, strikes, French & Belgian occupation of the Ruhr.
Economic collapse: Hyperinflation, the Great Depression, reliance of American loans.
Liberal reforms were benefitted by the nature of the constitution.
International relations improved.
Weimar constitution essentially destroyed the Weimar government.
Pro-Weimar politicians were perceived to be 'November criminals' for signing the armistice.
Article 48 allowed the President to rule by decree in times of emergency.
President had the power to appoint the Chancellor.
Proportional Representation gave way to the rise of extremist parties, like the Nazis and the Communists. Made it extremely difficult for a majority to be established; coalitions that were unwilling to compromise.
Uprisings, putsches threatened the stability of Weimar. Spartacist uprising; Kapp Putsch.
General strikes; Kapp Putsch [link to economic collapse]
French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr [link to economic collapse]
Hyperinflation - linked to Kapp Putsch and occupation of the Ruhr.
Wall Street Crash - reliance on American laons.
Dawes and Young plans - effects they had on the German economy.
Liberal reforms - Labour exchanges, Unemployment Insurance Law (1927)
1929 - the state was spending 33 times more on housing in comparison with 1913.
Tuberculosis - pre-1914; 143 deaths in every 10,000. 1928; 87 deaths in every 10,000.
Signing of the Locarno Treaty - allowed Germany to enter the League of Nations in 1926. Showed Germany was re-emerging as a world power.
Summary of all points made. Ultimately, it was the constitution which handicapped the government due to the nature of it.